 HOME  QUANTUM
INTERPRETATION  DQG  DISCRETE ELECTRON  NUCLEAR MODEL

Peter Fimmel's
 SPACE CONCEPT  DISCRETENESS  BACKGROUND IDEAS  PROCESS  ORDER  Web Site Discrete Electrodynamics One of the most remarkable
achievements of the project to develop quantum theory in
the first three decades of the twentieth century was
Dirac's relativistic equations for the electron. Like so
many of the foundations of quantum mechanics, those
equations were full of surprises at the time and remain,
eighty years later, a mine whose ore is yet to be fully
worked out. One of the ore bodies still to be extracted is
an interpretation of the negative energy electron that
moves at the speed of light and whose description gives an
equal role to time and space. Each is a physical
consequences of the Dirac equation for the electron.
The negative energy solutions remain a challenge to the physical relevance of the equations. Dirac realised that the mathematics and physical reality were inconsistent, which, on the face of it, could be interpreted to mean that either was a satisfactory representation of the electron and the other was not. It also remains possible that neither were satisfactory representations of reality. Dirac’s response was to leave the
prevailing picture of reality in place and to remove the
inconsistency by extending the mathematics. He proved
that, by a unitary symmetry transformation, negative
energy solutions could be transformed into positive energy
solutions with opposite charge and the same mass. In
taking the decision to extend the mathematics, Dirac made
a choice between the alternatives of mathematics and
reality and he chose in favour of the latter. The other alternative, which is studied
here, assumes that the original mathematics were an
adequate representation of the quantum electron and that
the problem arises from the inadequacy of the prevailing
understanding of physical reality. The present approach to
understanding the electron together with the three
'unphysical' consequences of the Dirac equation begins
with a minimum of assumptions and seeks to find a new
kinematical framework in which the electron behaves both
quantum mechanically and relativistically while remaining
consistent with observed phenomena. The following are four in a series of
papers on the theory of the discrete electron.
Title On the Electrodynamics of Stationary Events Abstract:
The present paper traces the consequences of a natural
reinterpretation of the allowed energy states of the Dirac
electron. It is argued that a physical model should not
rely upon quantity and number. That constraint is met by
the substitution of the mathematical opposites of positive
and negative with the physical opposites of actual and
potential, which leads naturally to a picture of
elementary particle behaviour which conforms with special
relativity, and exhibits many wellknown counterintuitive
features of quantum mechanics. Individual elementary
particles oscillate between actual and potential states.
The oscillation requires that geometrical relations and
other observables are discrete. In addition, stationarity
is generalized to all system variables. The oscillation is
serial oneparticle creation and annihilation, in which
particle position changes not by continuous motion but by
stochastic relocalization in time and space. Spacetime
for the electron is serially absent and continuous. The
energy of an elementary particle can only be known for the
duration of a complete cycle of the oscillation and not at
an instant. Energy is bounded from below and is always
nonnegative. The model physically restricts particle
interactions to twoparticle antisymmetrical ensembles,
which therefore comply naturally with Pauli exclusion.
Key words: Discrete electron • Physical model • Quantum mechanics • Special relativity • Mathematics and reality. Full Text is here
Abstract The
relativistic
equation
for
the
electron,
when
first
developed by Dirac, had several problematic physical
consequences. Among them were the physical reality of the
allowed negative energy states of the electron. Dirac
assumed that the problem was due to a mathematical
shortcoming rather than the adequacy of the usual picture
of physical reality and so he extended the mathematics in
order to bring it into better agreement with reality. We
return to the problem of the reality of mathematical
models and entertain the proposition that Dirac's original
mathematics is a satisfactory representation of Nature and
turn our attention to the kind of physical reality of
which the mathematics could be indicative. By subjecting
the analysis to a broader than usual special relativistic
constraint we are led to a picture of the electron whose
chief feature is a continual actualisation of potential,
of the Aristotelian type. The model is novel and contrary
to the doctrine of continuity; it is parsimonious and
conforms with the wellknown counterintuitive quantum
behaviour of elementary particles.
Key words: Discrete Dirac electron • Physical model • Quantum theory • Special relativity • Mathematics and reality Full Text is here Title Abstract: The problem of electrodynamics among charged particles is analyzed by a physical interpretation of the consequences of the Dirac relativistic equation for the electron. By replacing the mathematical opposites of positive and negative energies with the physical opposites of actual and potential energies and serially coupling them in an oscillation the electron becomes fully discrete in both space and time. When the oscillations of individual charged particles and photons are suitably geometrically related their classical aspects reduce to motionless events whose genesis and interactions form a seamless union of quantum mechanics and special relativity. The model is simply particulate, fields and waves play no role. The logical development of the extension of the model among electrons and protons leads naturally to the electromagnetic interaction of the components of the helium atom.
Title
Chemical Inertness of the Group 18 Elements Evolves Naturally with the Extension of the Discrete Kinematics of the Dirac Electron Abstract:
We
describe a fully deductive explanation of the chemical
inertness of the group 18 (VIIIA) elements of the
periodic system. A qualitative analysis of the
oscillation of the Dirac electron, coupled with the
Aristotelian doctrine of the actualization of
immaterial potential, is sufficient for a description
of discrete, chargedparticle kinematics that is
quantum mechanical and dependent upon the rules of
special relativity. In that framework, an extension of
the kinematics of the oneelectron system is shown to
evolve naturally into the singleatom, electromagnetic
interactions of each member of the group 18 elements.
The virtual photon and electron–pair coboson–mediated
electromagnetic interactions of the chargedparticle
ensembles for a single, neutral atom of each member of
the group 18 elements forms a complete interaction.
That completeness leaves no tendency to react with
additional electrons, and is unique to the group 18
elements. The electron collectivities of the
interactions of the group 18 elements from helium to
krypton are seen to mirror the electron occupancies of
the quantum orbitals of those elements. The
interactions of the two higher–mass elements of the
group show no such relationship. PACS numbers:
82.40.Bj, 71.45.d, 31.15.X, 31.15.aq Full Text is here 
Comments and questions are welcome to pjf@it.net.au 
© Peter Fimmel 20022014
Last page update 15/03/14 
